Friday, July 12, 2024

Object-Oriented PHP: Basics for Absolute Beginners

Last Updated on May 21, 2024

Introduction to Object-Oriented PHP

Object-Oriented PHP, also known as OOP, is a programming paradigm that focuses on using objects to structure code.

It allows for modular and reusable code, making development more efficient and maintainable.

Object-Oriented Programming (OOP) is a programming approach that emphasizes the use of objects.

Objects contain data and methods that manipulate that data. OOP provides a way to organize code by grouping related functions and data together.

OOP brings several advantages to PHP development.

First, it promotes code reuse, as objects can be easily instantiated and used in different parts of the codebase. This reduces the need to write repetitive code and improves productivity.

Second, OOP improves code organization. As objects encapsulate data and functions, code becomes more modular and easier to understand and maintain. This makes it simpler to add new features or update existing ones without impacting other parts of the codebase.

Additionally, OOP supports inheritance, a mechanism that allows objects to inherit properties and methods from other objects.

This enables the creation of hierarchies of objects, increasing code flexibility and promoting code reusability.

Furthermore, OOP encourages the use of encapsulation, which restricts access to object data and methods.

This helps prevent unintended modifications to object states and enhances code security.

Understanding and using Object-Oriented PHP is crucial for modern web development.

It offers a structured and scalable approach to programming, facilitating code maintenance and promoting code reuse. By leveraging OOP, developers can create robust and efficient PHP applications.

Classes and Objects

In this section, we will discuss the basics of object-oriented programming in PHP.

Specifically, we will explore the concepts of classes and objects, and how they are used in PHP.

Explanation of classes and objects in PHP

In object-oriented programming, a class is a blueprint or template that defines the properties and behaviors of an object.

It encapsulates data and methods into a single unit. On the other hand, an object is an instance of a class.

It represents a specific entity or item that has its own unique characteristics.

When defining a class in PHP, we use the keyword “class” followed by the class name.

For example, let’s create a class called “Car”:

class Car {
 // Class properties
 public $brand;
 public $color;

 // Class methods
 public function startEngine() {
   echo "The $this->brand car's engine has started!";

In the above example, we defined a class named “Car” with two properties, “brand” and “color”, and a method called “startEngine”.

The properties represent the attributes of a car, while the method represents a behavior.

Creating and instantiating classes

To create an object from a class, we use the “new” keyword followed by the class name with parentheses.

For instance, to create a car object:

$myCar = new Car();

In the above code, we instantiated a new object called “$myCar” from the “Car” class. Now, we can access and manipulate its properties and methods.

Accessing object properties and methods

To access the properties of an object, we use the object name followed by the arrow operator (->), then the property name.

Similarly, to call the methods of an object, we use the object name followed by the arrow operator (->), then the method name with parentheses.

Let’s modify the “Car” class to demonstrate accessing properties and methods:

class Car {
 // Class properties
 public $brand;
 public $color;

 // Class methods
 public function startEngine() {
   echo "The $this->brand car's engine has started!";
 public function getColor() {
   return $this->color;

Now, let’s access the properties and call the methods of the car object:

$myCar = new Car();
$myCar->brand = "Toyota";
$myCar->color = "Blue";

echo "Brand: " . $myCar->brand; // Output: Brand: Toyota
echo "Color: " . $myCar->getColor(); // Output: Color: Blue
$myCar->startEngine(); // Output: The Toyota car's engine has started!

In the above code, we accessed the “brand” property and called the “getColor” and “startEngine” methods of the “$myCar” object.

In conclusion, understanding classes and objects is essential in PHP’s object-oriented programming.

Classes act as blueprints, while objects represent specific instances.

By creating and instantiating classes, we can access properties and execute methods to manipulate the objects.

Read: An Overview of PHP Frameworks: Laravel, Symfony, Yii


Encapsulation is a fundamental concept in Object-Oriented Programming (OOP) that plays a crucial role in code organization and data protection.

Definition and significance of encapsulation in OOP:

  1. Encapsulation refers to the bundling of data and methods within a single entity, called a class.

  2. It allows objects to hide their internal state and provide controlled access through public methods.

  3. The significance of encapsulation lies in the ability to protect data and prevent undesired modifications or access from external sources.

  4. It promotes code reusability, maintainability, and scalability by providing a clear separation of concerns.

Using access modifiers (public, private, protected):

  1. Access modifiers are keywords that define the visibility and accessibility of properties and methods in a class.

  2. Public access modifier allows unrestricted access to properties or methods from any part of the code.

  3. Private access modifier restricts access to only within the class itself, preventing direct external modifications.

  4. Protected access modifier allows access within the class and its subclasses, ensuring controlled accessibility to related classes.

Encapsulating properties and methods in PHP classes:

  1. To encapsulate properties, they should be declared as private or protected and accessed through public methods, called getters and setters.

  2. Getters retrieve the value of a property, while setters set or modify the value of a property.

  3. Using getters and setters ensure the proper encapsulation of properties while providing controlled access.

  4. For example, consider a class “Person” with private properties like name, age, and address. Public methods like getName() and setName() can be used to access and modify these properties.

Benefits of encapsulation in PHP:

  1. Encapsulation in PHP offers improved security by preventing direct modifications to sensitive data.

  2. It helps prevent accidental manipulation of object state by limiting access to private and protected properties and methods.

  3. Encapsulation enhances code maintainability and reusability, as changes made within a class do not impact other parts of the codebase.

  4. It promotes better code organization and helps achieve a clear separation of concerns, leading to more readable and understandable code.

Encapsulation is an essential concept in OOP as it allows for the proper organization of code, data protection, and enhanced reusability.

By using access modifiers and encapsulating properties and methods, PHP classes can achieve better security, maintainability, and scalability.

Read: Working with Files in PHP: Reading, Writing, and More


Inheritance is a key concept in object-oriented programming (OOP) that allows classes to inherit properties and methods from other classes.

It promotes code reuse and helps in creating more organized and modular codebases.

Understanding inheritance is crucial for beginners to grasp the basics of OOP.

Understanding inheritance in OOP

In OOP, a class can be defined as a blueprint for creating objects. It specifies the properties and methods that an object of that class will possess.

Inheritance comes into play when we want to create new classes that share some common functionalities with an existing class.

To understand inheritance, let’s consider a real-world example of a vehicle.

We can have a general class called “Vehicle” that defines common properties and methods like “color,” “fuel type,” and “start engine”.

Now, suppose we want to create specific types of vehicles like “Car” and “Motorcycle” that share some common properties and methods with the “Vehicle” class.

To achieve this, we can create child classes (Car and Motorcycle) that inherit from the parent class (Vehicle).

The child classes will automatically have access to the properties and methods defined in the parent class.

Creating parent and child classes

Creating parent and child classes in PHP is straightforward.

We can define the parent class using the “class” keyword and create child classes using the “extends” keyword, followed by the name of the parent class.

class Vehicle {
 protected $color;

 public function startEngine() {
    echo "Engine started!";

class Car extends Vehicle {
 protected $numberOfDoors;

class Motorcycle extends Vehicle {
 protected $numberOfWheels;

Inheriting properties and methods

In the above example, the child classes Car and Motorcycle inherit the property “color” and method “startEngine” from the parent class Vehicle.

Additionally, the child classes can define their own unique properties like “numberOfDoors” in Car and “numberOfWheels” in Motorcycle.

Overriding methods in child classes

Inheritance also allows child classes to override methods defined in parent classes.

This means that child classes can provide their implementation of a method instead of using the one inherited from the parent class.

This concept is called method overriding.

Let’s consider an example where the parent class Vehicle has a method called “honk”.

We can override this method in the child class Car to make a different sound when the horn is honked.

class Vehicle {
 // ...
 public function honk() {
    echo "Honk!";

class Car extends Vehicle {
 // ...

 public function honk() {
    echo "Beep Beep!";

Now, when we create an object of the Car class and call the “honk” method, it will output “Beep Beep!” instead of the default “Honk!” from the parent class.

Inheritance is a powerful feature in OOP that promotes code reuse, modularity, and extensibility.

It allows us to create a hierarchy of classes, where child classes can inherit properties and methods from parent classes and override them when necessary.

By understanding the concept of inheritance and implementing it correctly, you can create more organized codebases and leverage the benefits of OOP in PHP programming.

Read: How to Integrate PHP and JavaScript for Dynamic Sites

Object-Oriented PHP: Basics for Absolute Beginners


Polymorphism is an important concept in object-oriented programming (OOP).

It allows objects of different classes to be treated as objects of a common superclass.

This enables code reusability and flexibility in designing software systems.

In this section, we will explore the definition and implementation of polymorphism in OOP using PHP.

Definition and implementation of polymorphism in OOP:

Polymorphism refers to the ability of an object to take on many forms.

In OOP, it is achieved by creating a hierarchy of classes where a derived class inherits the properties and methods of its parent class.

This allows objects of different classes to be used interchangeably as if they were of the same class.

Using interfaces and abstract classes:

Interfaces provide a way to define a contract of methods that a class must implement.

They allow for multiple inheritance in PHP by specifying the behaviors that a class should exhibit.

Abstract classes, on the other hand, provide partial implementation and cannot be instantiated directly.

They serve as blueprints for derived classes to extend and implement.

Implementing polymorphic behaviors in PHP:

To implement polymorphism, we first define a common interface or abstract class that defines the common methods for the derived classes.

Each derived class then implements the methods according to its specific functionality.

The advantage of using polymorphism is that we can write code that works with objects of the common superclass, regardless of the specific class’s type.

Benefits of polymorphism:

Polymorphism promotes code reusability as it allows different classes to have a common interface.

Developers can write code that works with a superclass, without needing to know the specific details of the derived classes.

This promotes flexibility and makes the system more maintainable and scalable.

Polymorphism also enables the implementation of different behaviors from a common method based on the context of the object.


Let’s consider an example where we have a superclass called ‘Shape’ and two derived classes called ‘Circle’ and ‘Rectangle’.

The ‘Shape’ class has a common method called ‘calculateArea’.

Both the ‘Circle’ and ‘Rectangle’ classes inherit from ‘Shape’ and implement the ‘calculateArea’ method based on their respective formulas.

We can then create objects of both classes and call the ‘calculateArea’ method, treating them as objects of the ‘Shape’ class.

Polymorphism is a powerful concept in OOP that allows objects of different classes to be treated as objects of a common superclass.

By using interfaces and abstract classes, we can define a common contract that derived classes must adhere to.

Implementing polymorphic behaviors in PHP promotes code reusability, flexibility, and maintainability in software systems.

Polymorphism allows for the interchangeability of objects, making code more flexible and reusable.

Using interfaces and abstract classes, we can define common behaviors and implement them in derived classes.

Polymorphism is a fundamental concept in OOP, enabling developers to write more versatile and scalable software systems.

Read: Exploring the Laravel PHP Framework: An Introduction

Summary and Next Steps

In this blog post, we covered the basics of Object-Oriented PHP for absolute beginners.

We discussed key concepts such as classes, objects, properties, and methods.

We also explored how to create and use objects in PHP, as well as the importance of encapsulation and inheritance.

To further enhance your understanding of Object-Oriented PHP, I encourage you to explore additional resources and practice coding on your own.

There are many online tutorials, forums, and documentation available to deepen your knowledge.

Understanding Object-Oriented PHP is not only valuable for beginners but also crucial for career growth and development.

Many companies and organizations rely on Object-Oriented PHP for building scalable and maintainable web applications.

By mastering Object-Oriented PHP, you will open up opportunities for higher-level programming positions and increase your value as a developer.

So, keep learning, practicing, and pushing yourself to apply the concepts covered in this blog post. Happy coding!

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